Websites and Resources
Conferences and Events
Welcome to lootedart.com
This site contains two fully searchable databases.
The Information Database contains information and documentation from forty nine countries, including laws and policies, reports and publications, archival records and resources, current cases and relevant websites.
The Object Database contains details of over 25,000 objects of all kinds – paintings, drawings, antiquities, Judaica, etc – looted, missing and/or identified from over fifteen countries.
All images on the site are published under fair use conditions for the purpose of criticism and research.
The Commission for Looted Art in Europe seeks an experienced German-speaking art historian as a full-time provenance researcher in London. For further details, click here.
The Stern Cooperation Project (SCP), a joint German, Israei and Canadian project based at Munich's Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte (Central Institute for Art History), started work in July 2018. The project deals with the history of the German Jewish art dealer family of Julius, Selma, Max, Hedi and Gerda Stern, and the history of the galleries owned by the Stern family from 1913-1987: Galerie Stern (Dusseldorf), West's Galleries (London ) and Dominion Gallery (Montreal).
This field of research has been studied since 2002 by the Max Stern Art Restitution Project (MSARP) under the direction of Drs Clarence Epstein and Willi Korte. This concentrated on the identification and return of individual stolen art works. SCP is taking a broader approach and, through international and interdisciplinary cooperation, it will try to reconstruct the persecution-related migration history of both the family and their art business.
For full details, click here.
The 3-0 ruling against the claim for two Cranach paintings depicting Adam and Eve invoked the act of state doctrine, where U.S. courts typically defer to foreign governments’ sovereign actions and avoid interfering with the executive branch’s ability to conduct foreign policy. Judge Margaret McKeown said ruling for von Saher would require nullifying three “official” Dutch government actions: their 1966 sale to George Stroganoff-Scherbatoff, a onetime U.S. Navy commander and descendant of Russian aristocracy who sold the painting to the Norton Simon Museum, a 1999 decision not to restore von Saher’s rights, and a 2006 decision that her claim had been “settled.” “Without question, the Nazi plunder of artwork was a moral atrocity that compels an appropriate governmental response,” McKeown wrote. “But the record ... reveals an official conveyance from the Dutch government to Stroganoff thrice ‘settled’ by Dutch authorities. For all the reasons the doctrine exists, we decline the invitation to invalidate the official actions of the Netherlands.” To read the ruling, click here.
The 301-page searchable dossier provides the full results of provenance research into 85 paintings and 9 sculptures, the status of some of which remains questionable. Only 17 of the paintings are listed on lostart.de here and with minimal information. The dossier, published as a pdf, can be reviewed here. It contains extensive information on the provenance of and literature on each work of art.
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit has affirmed the right of the heirs to the so-called Guelph Treasure (known in German as the Welfenschatz) to seek restitution in U.S. courts for the value of the treasured art collection. The appellate court rejected Defendants’ arguments that U.S. courts lack jurisdiction, or that Germany’s treatment of its Jews in the 1930s should be immune from judicial scrutiny. While the Federal Republic of Germany itself was dismissed as a defendant, the actual possessor and key party in interest (the Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, or SPK) must now prove that a 1935 transfer of the collection by a consortium of Jewish art dealers to Hermann Goering’s minions was a legitimate transaction if they are to retain the collection. To read the press release, click here. To read the ruling click here.
Sourced from the archive of the Kunsthistorisches Museum (KHM) (5,900 file cards) and the Federal Monuments Office (BDA) (5,600 file cards), the two Central Depot card indexes provide a record of objects from private art collections in Vienna confiscated from Jews after March 1938 by the Nazi regime and subsequently dispersed in museums, including the planned Führer Museum in Linz.
The Central Depot for Confiscated Collections was established in autumn 1938 on the first floor of the Neue Burg in Vienna, as a depository for objects from Viennese collections confiscated from Jews by the Nazi regime from mid-March 1938 onwards for subsequent dispersal in various museums. They included artworks belonging to the collectors Emmy Aldor, Bernhard Altmann, Alois Bauer, Leo Fürst, David Goldmann, Rudolf Gutmann, Felix Haas, Felix Kornfeld, Moritz Kuffner, Wally Kulka, Otto Pick, N. Pilzer, Valentin Viktor Rosenfeld, Alphonse Rothschild, Louis Rothschild and Alfons Thorsch, as well as objects of unknown origin.
The Central Depot was initiated by Fritz Dworschak, director of the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, whose idea was to create a central collection point where the artworks, hitherto stored at different locations, could be united under one roof, his own. Together with the KHM employees Leopold Ruprecht and Karl Pollhammer, who were responsible for cataloguing the objects, and employees of other state museums (Heinrich Leporini, Ignaz Schlosser), Dworschak acted until July 1940 as manager of the depot. At his instigation, Julius Scherb and Paul Frankenstein photographed the most important confiscated objects until late summer 1939. At the start of the war, the first objects were transferred from the Central Depot, and from July 1940 it was managed by the Institute for Monument Protection, the present-day Federal Monuments Office, until the depot was gradually closed in 1941.
To access the site which is now in English and German, click here.
The lawsuit filed by Alexander Khochinsky against the Republic of Poland seeking declaratory relief and money damages for Poland’s alleged retaliation against him for seeking restitution for the property his family lost when they fled before the advancing Nazi army in 1939, using false allegations to seek his extradition and nearly destroying his livelihood.
In 2010 Khochinsky learned a painting he had inherited might have been taken from a Polish museum during the war. Hoping that mutual desires for restitution would make Poland more willing to consider paying his family for land in Przemysl that had been taken from them, he contacted Poland about both his family’s land and the painting. The suit alleges that Poland reacted vengefully to Khochinsky's request for compensation. It invented false charges that Khochinsky had knowingly received stolen goods, and it sought to have him extradited from his home in the United States.
To read the suit, click here.
On 18 and 19 November 1938, 43 works from the 'O.' collection of Frankfurt am Main, designated in the auction catalogue as 'non-Aryan' or 'Nichtarischer Besitz', were sold by the Hans Lange auction house in Berlin. They included paintings by Aert van der Neer, Jacob Ruysdael, Thomas Wijck, Franz von Lenbach, Adolf Lier, Caspar Scheuren, Carl Spitzweg and Adolf von Menzel. If anyone has information on the identity of the owner of the 'O' collection, please write to email@example.com. To see the Lange catalogue, click here.
In a ceremony with the family, the Bomann-Museum in Celle, Germany, has returned to the heirs of Alphons Jaffé a painting by the Dutch Old Master Simon de Vlieger which was seized in 1941 from the Museum De Lakenhal in Leiden, Holland, together with 56 other paintings on loan from the Jaffé collection. The museum bought the painting in 1943 from Heinrich Hoffmann. The Jaffé heirs are represented by the Commission for Looted Art in Europe which welcomed the restitution, but commented that the Bomann-Museum will not be returning another painting, one looted from the collection of Bruno Jellinek which the Commission also represents. The painting is owned by the Tansey Foundation which displays its collection in the museum and is a great financial patron, helping the museum acquire works. Although the city of Celle is committed to the Washington Principles, the Foundation is not. Like all private institutions and persons in Germany, it is not under any legal obligation to restitute. Although the German government acknowledged the need to change the law in 2013, nothing has been done. In Celle, the city continues to host the Tansey collection and its looted Jellinek painting. 30 paintings from the Jaffé collection remain missing.
On 6 November 2017, in a ceremony at The Mansion House, London, the official residence of the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the City of London Corporation restituted Jacob Ochtervelt’s The Oyster Meal to Mrs Charlotte Bischoff von Heemskerck, the 96 year old surviving daughter of the late owner, Dr. J. H. Smidt van Gelder, director of the Children’s Hospital of Arnhem, The Netherlands. The 17th century painting, looted in 1945, was the subject of a restitution claim submitted by the Commission for Looted Art in Europe (CLAE), with extensive supporting documentation, earlier this year. CLAE’s research traced the previously unknown history of The Oyster Meal between its seizure and disappearance in January 1945 and its reappearance on the art market in Switzerland in 1965. For full details, see the Press Release jointly issued by the City of London Corporation and the Commission.
On 2 May 2018 in Berlin, MARI will present its online portal with recent research results and a media station on works from the Rudolf Mosse Collection. The aim of MARI is to reconstruct the extensive art collection of the German Jewish publisher Rudolf Mosse (1843-1920) and to investigate where the works that were taken by the National Socialists are currently located. The results are recorded in the MARI online portal, a research database. Launched a year ago, MARI is the first public-private partnership in provenance research and is considered unique. The Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation (SPK) is one of several German institutions involved in the project, which is funded by the Deutsches Zentrum Kulturgutverluste and the heirs who are working in cooperation with the Freie Universität Berlin (FU).
Leibl Rosenberg, in charge of the project on looted books in the City Library, has, almost single-handedly, over the last few years, identified and effected the return of hundreds of books to their former owners in eleven countries. The most recent list of former owners of looted books still in the library and which come from all over Europe has been published on the Library website and on this website as a searchable list and he writes:
'We ask you once again today to give the victims a little bit of justice after all this time. This project was, is and remains pro bono, there are no costs for the applicants. Please read our latest search list on the homepage of the City Library and make this project known to your friends and partners by publishing this link on your pages. There are still many people waiting for these fragments of memory.'
For information in German on the history of the collection, which originates in the library of Julius Streicher, and details on how to make a claim, click here. For information in English, click here
In the International Tracing Service archive in Bad Arolsen, Germany, there are nearly 3,000 personal effects from concentration camps: pocket watches and wristwatches, engraved wedding rings, wallets, family photos, letters, everyday items such as combs and powder compacts, etc. Often they were the last remaining belongings of the victims of Nazi persecution, the last items they had with them at the time of their detention by the National Socialists. The personal effects are mainly from the concentration camps of Neuengamme and Dachau, Natzweiler and Bergen-Belsen, as well as the transit camps of Amersfoort and Compiègne. In addition there are some from prisoners of the Hamburg Gestapo.
Through an initiative of the Commission for Looted Art in Europe, efforts began by the ITS in 2008 to document and return these effects, and, as a result, several hundred were returned. In 2018, the ITS started an international campaign to return the remaining personal possessions. In January and February 2018 an exhibition #StolenMemory was mounted at UNESCO in Paris showing what it means to people to have back these mementoes and showing objects whose owners the ITS has yet to find.
See the names list here
The International Research Portal for Records Related to Nazi-era Cultural Property, till now hosted by the US National Archives (NARA), is now hosted by the European Holocaust Research Infrastructure (EHRI) as part of the suite of Holocaust-related research resources available through the EHRI website.
The Portal links researchers to archival materials at 22 participating institutions, consisting of descriptions of records and, in many cases, digital images of the records that relate to cultural property that was stolen, looted, seized, forcibly sold, or otherwise lost during the Nazi era. The International Research Portal is an important resource for provenance, claims, and academic researchers to locate relevant archival materials across institutions.
The Portal was enhanced prior to the move to enable searching simultaneously across many of the resources available through the Portal that previously had to be accessed individually. This additional capability greatly improves the ability of researchers to access archival materials across multiple institutions while conducting cross-institutional research. A short article outlining the new search features can be found here. For further information about the Portal and the records available, click here.
Museums are increasingly putting their collections online, most with images. The Metropolitan Museum in New York has 1.5 million objects of which 447,000 are currently online, 307,000 with images. The Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC which encompasses 19 museums has 154 million objects, 10 million of which are available online, 2.2 million of them with images. The Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam has 1 million objects of which 602,000 are online, all of them with images. The UK has put online the country's 200,000 oil paintings in 3,250 public venues from museums to hospitals and even a lighthouse, all with images, some which had never been photographed before. There are also watercolours and works on paper. Among the online collections are the following:
ArtUK: 200,000 oil paintings, watercolours and works on paper, all with images https://artuk.org/
Bavarian State Paintings Collections, Munich (18 museums): 25,000 works online https://www.pinakothek.de/sammlung
Berlin State Museums (17 collections): 180,000 works online, all with images http://www.smb-digital.de/eMuseumPlus
- also Ancient Bronzes in Berlin: 8,200 objects online acquired by 1945 http://ww2.smb.museum/antikebronzenberlin/index.htm
British Museum, London: 4 million works online, 1 million with one or more images https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/search.aspx
Dresden State Collections: No information about the number of works online; only published are those with 'cleared' provenances http://skd-online-collection.skd.museum/
Louvre, Paris: 30,000 objects online with images, all are works on display http://cartelen.louvre.fr/cartelen/visite?srv=crt_frm_rs&langue=en&initCritere=true
Metropolitan Museum, New York: 447,000 works online 307,000 with images http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection
Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), New York: 75,000 works online (of 200,000 in total in the collection), 63,000 with images https://www.moma.org/collection/
Prado Museum, Madrid: 3,500 works online with images https://www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-works
Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam: 604,000 works online, all with images https://www.rijksmuseum.nl/en/search?ii=0&p=1
Smithsonian, Washington: 10 million works online, 1.6 million with images http://collections.si.edu/search/about.htm
V&A, London: 1.2 million works online, 675,000 with images https://collections.vam.ac.uk/
Copies of lawsuits filed in various cases, stages and jurisdictions are provided on this site. Cases with recent filings include the claim on 3 March 2017 by the Lewenstein heirs for the Kandinsky painting owned by Munich's Bavarian Landesbank, the claim by the heirs of Alice Leffmann for the Picasso painting 'The Actor' in the Metropolitan Museum NY, the claim for the Guelph Treasure against the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation and the Federal Republic of Germany, and the claim by the heirs of Fritz Grunbaum for a Schiele drawing owned by Richard Nagy. To view the filings, click here.
Country-specific information is available on this site for 48 countries, from Albania to Yugoslavia, in the Information by Country section. Details of important, non country-specific, online resources are available in the International section of the site which contains several categories of information. For example:
Restitutions and Case News: provides details of claims and cases ruled on or settled outside the courts with copies of reports and rulings. Full details of a comprehensive range of cases can be found in the News Archive, which is fully searchable by name of family, artwork, museum, city, etc.
Lawsuits: provides details of claims and cases ruled on or being settled in court with copies of court filings and judgements.
Research Resources: provides details of family records, tracing services, art historical resources, texts of post-war reports, and books and publications.
Web Resources: provides details of various online databases of looted paintings, results of provenance research in countries around the world, archival records available online and other research materials.
Seeking Owners of Identified Looted Property: provides lists of names of individuals whose looted property has been identified in institutions in Germany and whose heirs are being sought.
Other categories of information include Governmental Conferences and Hearings, Laws, Policies and Guidelines, Art Trade, and Press, Television, Radio and Film. To explore all these sections, click here.
The site is regularly updated with new resources and developments. To provide details of resources or cases to add to the site, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
On 25 June CLAE published its groundbreaking original research showing that Germany returned Nazi looted artworks to the high-ranking Nazi families who stole it rather than to the families from whom this was taken, and that this remarkable scandal has been covered up by Germany for decades. At the same time, the looted families had their claims thrown out or impossible hurdles created to prevent them recovering their artworks - and this continues today. CLAE is now calling for a full accounting of these shameful transactions with the high-ranking Nazis and the way they have been hidden, as well as for three essential changes in the way Germany handles research and restitution:
1. Lists of all artworks in German collections whose provenance is unclear or problematic must be published so families have a chance of finding their missing paintings; there can be no more waiting for individual item provenance research to be done first;
2. All relevant records must be open and accessible. In particular, the records of the Bavarian Museums must be handed over to the State Archives in accordance with German law;
3. Germany must create a single, fair, transparent and accountable claims process that applies to all collections throughout Germany, at both federal and state level, so that all families can be confident their claims will be dealt with justly.
Germany already made these commitments 18 years ago at the Washington Conference on Holocaust-Era Assets, but has not implemented them. CLAE says that without total transparency and accountability, the victims of the Nazi looting will continue to be denied the justice that is so long overdue.